Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal 2021-09-15T03:39:57+00:00 Ophthalmology Research: An international Journal Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Ophthalmology Research: An international Journal (ISSN:&nbsp;2321–7227)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/OR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Ophthalmology research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Caffeine, Nicotine and MDMA Effects on Retina suggestive of Potential Functional Consequences 2021-08-23T04:27:24+00:00 Joshua O. Owolabi Philip O. Ogunnaike <p>The implications of the use of psychoactive substances, that are usually abused on the retina are yet to be adequately explored. The retina is neural in nature. Most investigations on psychoactive agents have only studied their effects on the brain and behaviour. The mechanisms employed by these agents in producing their effects on the brain suggest that the retina, being neural, might also be significantly affected by the use of the substances. This research investigated the effects of the prolonged use of caffeine, nicotine and 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA] on the retina. Juvenile male experimental Wistar were grouped and administered the lower and higher dose of each agent while a reference group remained as the Group A. Groups B and C received the lower [30mg/kg body weight]and the higher [50mg/kg body weight]doses of caffeine respectively; Groups D and E received the lower [10mg/kg body weight] and higher [20mg/kg body weight] doses of nicotine respectively while Groups F and G received the lower [20 mg/kg body weight] and the higher [40 mg/kg body weight] doses of MDMA respectively. The substances had effects on the thickness of the retina with higher doses in each instance causing reductions in retina thickness; the patterns of GFAP expression were also aberrant with the MDMA treated groups being most aberrant. There was no sign of extensive loss of any type of retinal cells. Rhodopsin expression generally demonstrated active rods and provided insight into relatively heathy cones. There is evidence that these agents altered retina thickness and GFAP expression but without extensive disruptions to serve as pathological hallmarks of retina degeneration. The consequences of these might be further investigated.</p> 2021-08-20T12:02:18+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of Accommodation Gain of Presbyopia Eye After Laser Ablation (or Shrinkage) of Sclera Via Lens Reshaping and Lens Anterior Shift 2021-08-24T05:16:52+00:00 Jui-Teng Lin <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> To derive and provide analytic formulas for an accommodative gain of presbyopia eyes. via sclera ablation and/or thermal shrinkage such that the lens is reshaped and/or its position is shifted. New mechanisms are also proposed.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>To increase the accommodation of presbyopia.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>New Taipei City, Taiwan, between June 2021 and July 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Accommodation gain is calculated by a 4-component theory, in which the rate functions are derived by an effective eye model for the change of anterior curvature of the lens and its anterior shift. The measured data of accommodative response of the lens versus the lens curvature change and anterior shift are analyzed. The measured net change of the posterior vitreal zonules (PVZ) length and the space between the ciliary body and lens (CLS) during the accommodation are also analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The accommodative gain (AG) is mainly due to the change of lens anterior curvature and its anterior shift. The AG per diopter change of the reshaped lens is 0.62 to 0.68 by our formulas, comparing to the measured average value M'=0.69.The efficacy of LASA (or AG) is proportional to the amount of scleral tissue removed (or shrinkaged), such that more space is produced for the change of PVZ and CLS from a UCS to AS for accommodation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The AG is proportional to the amount of scleral tissue removed (or shrinkaged), such that more space is produced for the change of PVZ and CLS from a UCS to AS for accommodation.</p> 2021-08-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Critical Analysis of Corneal Cross-linking (Part-II): Resolving the Controversial Issues (Theory versus Measurements) 2021-09-06T13:12:16+00:00 Jui-Teng Lin <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To resolve the controversial issues of UV-light-initiated corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) by theoretical formulas and measured clinical outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Analysis and measured data of CXL.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> New Vision Inc, Taipei, between June 2021 and August 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The controversial issues are addressed and resolved by analytical formulas including: the validation of Bunsen Roscoe law (BRL), the cutoff light intensity, the minimum corneal thickness, the demarcation line depth, the role of oxygen and riboflavin concentration. The overall CXL efficacy is governed by UV-A light intensity, dose, exposure time, mode of exposure (pulsed or CW), the riboflavin concentration, diffusion and drops pre-operation and interoperation administration, the concentration of oxygen in the stromal tissue (pre-op and inter-op), and environmental conditions. The length of the riboflavin presoaking time and viscosity of the riboflavin film also affect the crosslink depth. Analytic formulas are derived for the scaling laws for type-I and type-II efficacy, given by the square root of light intensity, and light dose, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The controversial issues of CXL may be partially resolved via analytic formulas, and compared with measurements. The scaling laws of type-I and type-II efficacy are different and given by analytic formulas. Our formulas also predict the maximum light intensity and the minimum corneal thickness, which are consistent with measurements.</p> 2021-09-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Common Presenting Complaints and Predisposing Factors among Adult Ophthalmic Patients with Low Vision and Blindness in Aba 2021-09-15T03:39:57+00:00 O. A. I. Otuka N. C. Ekeleme L. I. Eweputanna E. C. Iwuoha J. N. Ubah A. Kalu <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To determine the common complaints and predisposing factors of low vision and blindness among adult ophthalmic patients in Abia State University Teaching Hospital, (ABSUTH), Aba, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>A retrospective, descriptive study.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>An institutional-based study involving 457 patients who attended Abia State University Teaching Hospital eye clinic between April and September 2018 was undertaken. The patients’ biodata, clinical history, ophthalmic examination findings, and results of ancillary investigations were obtained from patients’ hospital records within the period under study and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 25.0. AP-value of &lt; 0.05 was taken to be statistical significant.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>A total of 457 patients comprising of 206 males and 251 females, aged 18-85 years were seen in the study period. Based on World Health Organization (WHO)’s definition of low vision and blindness, two hundred and eighty-four (62.1%) patients had normal vision, 25(5.5%) patients had low vision while 32(7%) patients were blind. The most common complaint was blurring of vision, 136 (23.5%) followed by itching of the eye, 91 (15.7%) and tearing, 86 (14.9%). Forty percent of the respondents’ complaints had lasted for over 12 months before presentation at the clinic. Common predisposing factors for low vision and blindness observed in this study were hypertension (24.1%), previous drug use (5%), previous use of traditional medication (1.3%) and family ocular history (3.7%). No statistically significant association was found between diagnostic data and family ocular history, previous use of traditional medication and previous drug use. Statistically, significant relationship was found between diagnostic data and blood pressure (P&lt; 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There are various presentations of low vision and blindness in Aba. Routine eye check, early referral and appropriate treatment is advocated for the populace.</p> 2021-09-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relationship between Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity Testing in Low Vision Patients of Different Age Groups 2021-09-14T11:48:21+00:00 Shazia Kanwal Rabia Manzoor Ghazala Iqbal Zehwa Mazhar <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To find a relationship between visual acuity and contrast sensitivity testing in low vision patients of different age groups. Effect of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity on increasing age of low vision patients.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Descriptive cross-sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The study included low vision patients of different age groups. Data was collected by Performa. Visual acuity was assessed by ETDRS chart and contrast sensitivity was checked by the peli-Robson chart at different distances. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 22.00.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study included a total of 64 patients with low vision of different age groups. Out of 64 patients, 31(48.44%) were males and 33(51.56%) were females. Patients with age group 1-15(15.63%). Patients with age group16-30(50%) and patients with age group above 30(34.36%). Relation between CS and VA of RE with age groups. In the age group 1-15, 2 patients have VA 0.9 and CS 0.10, in age group 16-30, 4 patients have VA 0.9 and CS 0.30 and in the age group of above 30 years 2 patients have VA 1 and CS 0.30. The relation between CS and VA of LE in different age groups of low vision patients in age group 1-15, 2 patients have VA 0.7 and CS 1.35 similarly in age group 16-30, 4 patients have VA 0.9 and CS 0.30 and in the age group above 30 years 2 patients have VA 1.3 and CS 0.75.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is concluded that the statistical value is significant P_ 0.00 which shows a significant result. And it shows that there is a strong relationship between visual acuity and contrast sensitivity as age increases visual acuity and contrast decreases so age has to affect visual functions.</p> 2021-09-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##